If you give an exposed roll to the processor for processing it will contain the latent images from the exposures you created. The latent images need to be enhanced and stabilized to produce a color negative which is then printed and seen by reflecting light.
Before we get into the creation of an image negative in color, it’s better to take a take a step back and work on an image that is black and white. If you were using black-and white film with your camera the same latent-image-formation process could have taken place, but the silver-halide grains would be sensitive to all visible light wavelengths rather than only blue, green or red light. In black-and-white film the silver-halide grains have been coated in only two or one layers which means that the process of developing is simpler to comprehend. What happens is:
In the beginning of the process the film, it is placed in a developing agent which is actually an reducing agent. If given the chance that the reducing agent is present, it will transform all silver ions into silver. For grains with latent-image sites will grow more quickly. When the right control is maintained of temperatures, time, and agitation, grains that have latent images will transform into pure silver. The grains that are not exposed will continue as crystals with a silver-halide halide.
Next, you must finish the process of developing by washing the film with water or applying the use of a “stop” bath that stops the process of developing.
The crystals of silver-halide that are not exposed are removed using what’s known as”the fixing bath. Fixers dissolve only the silver-halide crystals leaving the silver metal in its place.
In the final stage the film is rinsed by water to get rid of all processing chemicals. Film strips are then dried and then individual exposures are divided into negatives.
After you’re done with your work, you will are left with a negative of the scene. It is a negative image in the sense that it’s the darkest (has the highest concentration of silver atoms that are opaque) in the location which received the highest light exposure. If the area was not exposed to light, the negative contains zero silver atoms and remains transparent. To create an image that appears like a normal image to us, it needs to be printed on another light-sensitive substrate (usually photography paper).
In this process of development Gelatin that acts as a magic binder was a key role. It expanded to allow chemicals used in the process to penetrate the silver-halide grains but it also held the grains in their place. The process of swelling is crucial to the movement of chemical and reactions products through the layers of the photographic film. As of now nobody has discovered an appropriate substitute for gelatin in photographic films.
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Making Film: Color
If your film was colored negative type (that provides you with a print after being returned to the photo processing) the processing chemistry differs in many ways.
The development process involves reducing chemicals, which causes the silver-halide particles grow into pure silver. Oxidized developer can be produced by this process. The developed developer is oxidized and reacts with chemical known as couplers within each of the layers that create images. The couplers react to produce a color and the color of this hue varies based on the manner in which the silver-halide grains were sensitive to spectrally. The different color-forming couplers are employed in the red- sensitive, blue- and green-sensitive layers. The latent image formed by the different layers is formed into the dye in a different color as the film is made.
The layers that are sensitive to red form a cyan dye.
Layers of green-sensitive cells form a magenta-colored dye.
Blue-sensitive layers are formed by yellow dye.
The process of development can be stopped through washing or the use of a stop bath. The unexposed silver-halide grains are eliminated with a fixing solution. The silver developed in the initial step is eliminated by bleaching chemicals.
A negative picture is cleaned to get rid of all of the chemicals or reaction product as is possible. Film strips are dried.
The color negatives that result look quite strange. For one, unlike a typical black and white negative, this one is not made of silver. Apart from being an opposite color (negative) and negative, they are colored with a peculiar orange-yellow tint. They are a color-negative in that the greater exposure to red is experienced, the more the cyan dye forms. Cyan is a mixture of green and blue (or white plus red). The overall orange color is the result of masking dyes that assist in fix imperfections in the process of reproduction of colors. The image layers with green sensitivities have magenta dye in them, while the blue-sensitive image layers are infused with yellow dye.
The colors that are formed by the positive film’s color are built on the subtractive color formation method. The subtractive system employs just one color (cyan magenta, yellow, or) to regulate every primary color. The additive color system makes use of the combination of green, red and blue to create the color. Your TV can be described as an additive device. It makes use of tiny dots of green, red blue and blue phosphors to recreate the colors. In a photograph, these colors are laid on top of each other, which is why an subtractive system for color reproduction is needed.
The red color can be controlled through Cyan dye
The green color can be controlled through Magenta dye
Blue dyes are determined by Yellow dye